Wednesday, April 25, 2012

Fire protection for Buildings

Fire protection is one basic need in a building today, it can be given the first priority in a hospital due to what extinct the damage could cause, simply saying it’s a killing machine.
Fire eats every thing in its path.

Fire Detectors and alarms

Detection of a potentially dangerous rise in air temperature or pressure or the presence of smoke is required at the earliest possible moment to start an alarm . Evacuation of the hospital complex building and manual or automatic contact with the fire brigade monitoring switchboard should take place before people are at risk. Means of detection can be combined with security surveillance.

Hospital needs to have the following diction methods in order to prevent a devastating fire.

Hazard Detectors

Hazard Detectors give an early warning of the risk of a fire or explosion.

Temperature Rise: A local rise in temperature leads to the melting of a fusible link in a wire holding open a valve on a fuel pipe to a burner, thermal expansion of a fluid-filled bellows or capillary tube or movement of a bimetallic strip to make an alarm circuit.

Flammable vapour detector: Gas, oil petrol, or chemical vapour diffusion through a membranes is detected.

Diffusion: Butane and propane vapour diffusion through a membrane is detected.

Explosion: Rise of local atmospheric pressure above a set value, or at a fast rate, is detected.

Ionization smoke detector 

ionization smoke detectors contain a radioactive source of around 1 microcurie, typically americium- 241, which bombards room air within the detector with alpha particles ( ionization).  Electrical current consumption is 50 micro ampere. The presence of smoke reduces the flow of alpha ions; the electric current decreases and at a pre-set value an alarm is activated.

visible smoke detector

 A source of light is directed at a receiving photocell. Smoke obscures or scatters the light and an alarm is triggered.

Laser beam 

A laser beam is refracted by heat or smoke away from its target photocell and an alarm is initiated. A continuous or pulsed infrared beam can be transmitted up to 100 m and can be computer – controlled to scan the protected area. It can also serve as an intruder alarm.

Closed-circuit television 

Manned security monitoring also as fire and smoke detection. Infrared imaging cameras reveal overheating of buried pipes and cables and can detect heat sources unseen by visual techniques.

Fire alarms are a statutory requirement. Audible bells, sirens, klaxons, hooters and buzzers are arranged so that they produce a distinctive warning. A visual alarm should also be provided throughout a building. Breakable glass call points are located 1.4 m above floor level within 30 m of any part of the premises.

Fire protection concept 

Although fires in buildings can be avoided, they nevertheless occur. Some of the reason for this is human error, arson, faulty electrical equipment, poor maintenance of heating equipment, and natural causes, such as lightning. Consequently building should be desingned to minimize the probability of a fire and to protect life and to limit property damage if a fire should occour, the minimum steps that are to be followed are as follows:

- limit potential fore loads, with respect to both combustibility and ability to generate smock and toxic gases.
- Provide means for prompt detection of fires, with warning to occupants who may be affected and notification of the presence of fire to fire fighter.
- Communication of instruction to occupants as to procedures to adopt for safety, such as to staying in place, proceeding to a designated refuge area, or evacuating the building.
- Provide mean for early extiguishment of any fire that many occur, primarily by automatic sprinklers but also by trained fire fighter.
- Make available also for fire fighting an adequate water supply, appropriate chemicals, adequate- size piping, conveniently located valves on the piping, hose, pumps, and other equipment necessary.
- Prevent spread of fire from building to building, either through adequate separation or by enclosure of the building with incombustible materials.
- Partition the interior of the building with fire barriers, or divisions, to continue a fire to a limited space.
- Enclose with protective materials structural components that may be damaged by fire (fore proofing)
- Provide refuge areas for occupants and safe evacuation routes to outdoors.
- Provide means for removal of heat and smoke from the building as rapidly as possible without exposing to these hazards, with the air-conditioning system, if one is present, assisting the removal by venting the building and by pressurizing smoke proof towers, elevator shafts, and other exits.
- For large buildings like this Hospital, install standby equipment for operation in emergencies of electrical system and elevators.

 Oshkosh; Fire truck


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